## Monday, March 31, 2008

### Multiple pawn promotions

In the (first prize awarded) Miniature of Abdurahmanovic we see the theme multiple promotions during the four phases of the trial game, and also the theme X-flights after the key.

 Theme Multiple pawn Promotions (German: allumwandlung, AUW) : The solution contains pawn promotions to all kind of pieces. We have quadruple promotion, to queen, rook, bishop, knight.

 Theme X-flights : The king can escape moving diagonally (northeast, northwest, southwest, southeast).

 (Problem 15) Fadil Abdurahmanovic, First Prize "Yugoslav Republic Tourney", 1957 White plays and mates in 2 moves #2 (6+1) [5QKB/2P5/8/3k4/8/1R4S1/8/8]

Let us try to promote the pawn:
First Phase : Try {1.c8=Q? (not good, because black is in stalemate!)}
Second Phase : Try {1.c8=R? Ke6!}
Third Phase : Try {1.c8=B? Kc6!}
Fourth Phase : Try {1.c8=S? Kc4!}
Last Phase : Key 1.Se4!
Suddenly the knight is sacrificed. The black king has now one more flight, a total of four flights arranged in the shape of the letter X. But black is in "zugzwang", that is, whatever he plays leads to a lost position.
1...Ke6 2.Qf7#
1...Kc6 2.Qd6#
1...Kc4 2.Qf7#
1...Kxe4 2.Qf3#

In the problem-16, by Millour and Kerhuel, we see the X-flights and the multiple promotion of a pawn in the variations of the actual play.

 (Problem 16) R. J. Millour & M. Kerhuel, First Prize, "Europe Echecs", 1966 White plays and mates in 3 moves #3 (9+7) [3sR3/3s4/2P1P3/4kBp1/S2S2p1/PQ4p1/6p1/6K1]

Key: 1.e7!
If black moves the knight of the eighth row,
1...S8~ 2.Qe6+ and 3.Qe4#
If black moves the knight of the seventh row,
1...S7~ 2.exd8=Q+ and 3.Qe3#
There are also the X-flights of the king,
1...Kf4 2.exd8=S [3.Qe3#] Se5 3.Se6#
1...Kf6 2.exd8=Q+ Kg7 3.Qxg5#
1...Kd6 2.exd8=R Kc7 3.Rxd7#
1...Kxd4 2.exd8=B [3.Re4#] Se5 3.Bb6#

1. Could black use multiple promotions as defending mechanism? Yes!
2. For the defensive promotions Q R B S of the black, could white make respectively promotions Q R B S to continue his attack? Yes!
We will see that later, when we will describe the Babson task.

[This post in Greek language].

### Themes

When a composer of chess problems decides to create a new problem, he/she usually desires to present a new idea or a known idea in a new form.
The idea behind a problem is called theme of the problem.
The theme adds logic, coherence and beauty to a problem.

The themes have various objectives. There are ...
___(a) themes related with moves before the key, (in the set play and in the virtual play),
___(b) themes related with the key itself,
___(c) themes presented during the phase after the key (in the actual play), as they are the “line closures”, the “line openings”, the “special arrangements” of pieces, the specific “squares where the lines of action of the pieces intercept” (we call these squares “intersections”), the “interferences” that are created, και
___(d) themes which span over various phases of the solution of the problem and observe how the defenses of black and the mates of white are changing.

When the solver of chess problems tries to solve a problem, basically he/she seeks to discover the idea that is hidden by the composer in the problem and to appreciate how beautifully and economically this goal has been achieved.
The solver must examine the play in every phase of the problem and to ascertain that the mates are changed from one phase to the next.
The solver must not be led astray by the tries (attempts of the white refuted by a unique move of the black) and must find the the unique key and the main variations after the key.

In order to clarify the expression "a theme is contained in a problem", we shall see the Indian theme. It was called Indian because the reverend Loveday was in India when he first presented it. From the description of the theme we understand that it needs at least three moves to be completed.

 Theme Indian : A ”critical” white piece makes a ”critical” move and passes over a ”critical” square. Then a white piece self-interferes on the critical square to avoid stalemate of the black and in the next move withdraws giving check by discovering of the critical piece.

 (Problem 127) Rev. Henry Augustin Loveday, “The Chess Player Chronicle”, 02/1842 White plays and mates in 3 moves #3 (4+3) [ 8/4p3/7B/4p3/4k1P1/8/5K2/3R4]

Key: 1.Bc1! (The critical piece Bf6 makes the critical move to pass over the critical square d2)
1...e6 2.Rd2 (The Rook self-interferes on the critical square d2 to avoid stalemate of the black)
2...Kf4 3.Rd4# (The mate is achieved with the check of the discovered critical piece).

It is clear that the problem has no other content, besides the theme we described as Indian appearing once.

Now we will see a problem, where the composer manages to show two Indian critical moves in each of the two variations.

 (Problem 128) R. C. O. Matthews, First Prize, “Die Schwalbe”, 1952 White plays and mates in 6 moves #6 (13+8) [ 8/6p1/1p1p4/1P3pP1/1P3K1p/2PRBP2/S2PpPB1/2Rsk3]

Try: {1.Rxd6? g6!}

Key: 1.Bh3! (The black is in a zugzwang situation).

If 1...g6
2.Bxb6 (critical piece the Bishop, over the critical d4) d5
3.Rd4 (the Rook self-interferes) Kxf2
4.Rxd5+ (the discovered critical piece gives check, new critical piece the Rook, over the critical d4) Ke1
5.Bd4 (the Bishop self-interferes) Kxd2
6.Bf2# (the discovered critical piece gives check-mate).

If 1...d5
2.Rxd5 (critical piece the Rook, over the critical d4) g6
3.Bd4 (the Bishop self-interferes) Kxd2
4.Bxb6+ (the discovered critical piece gives check, new critical piece the Bishop, over the critical d4) Ke1
5.Rd4 (the Rook self-interferes) Kxf2
6.Rd4xd1# (the discovered critical piece gives check-mate).

We observe how the composer enriched his problem with Indian intersections and how beautifully the roles of the two critical pieces in the two variations are inversed. Quite naturally, the problem was awarded with First Prize.

[This post in Greek language].

## Sunday, March 30, 2008

### Twin problems

Sometimes it is possible to create twin problems.
So, from one position, with small modifications, we take more problems. The modifications are : change of the position of one piece, addition or removal of one piece, moving all the pieces by one row or one column, change of the direction of the board, change of the piece on a square, or something similar.
The twins are very common in helpmate problems.

 (Problem 14) Zappas Byron, Third Prize, “The Problemist”, 1965 (a) diagram : #2 (b) Twin with Ba5, (c) Twin with Sa5 (11+8) [5Q2/p3s3/P5p1/R2pP1P1/P2kr1p1/1B2p1S1/2R1P3/5k2]

The late professor Zappas Byron, (1927 – 2008), was the first Greek problemist who became International Grand Master in composition. The two-mover here has got twins, differing only at the piece on a5. The piece on a5 gives two of the mates. The mates change when this piece changes. The solutions are:

Problem (a) with white Ra5 : Key 1.Rb5! (waiting)
1...Kxe5 2.Qf6#
1...Rf4+ 2.Qxf4#
1...Rxe5 2.Rb4#
1...S~ 2.Rxd5#

Problem (b) with white Ba5 : Key 1.Bb4! (waiting)
1...Rxe5 2.Bc5#
1...S~ 2.Bc3#

Problem (c) with white Sa5 : Key 1.Ba2! (waiting)
1...Rxe5 2.Sb3#
1...S~ 2.Sc6#

[This post in Greek language].

### More-movers

In more-movers (problems with solutions in 4 or more moves) it is sometimes easy for the solver to see the mate (to imagine the picture of the mate), but there is almost always a small obstacle, which needs a series of moves (possibly repeated) in order to be removed.

The more-mover Problem-1, that S. R. Barrett composed one and a half century ago, is solved in twelve moves. The black pawn on b2 must not be promoted, because the black may win! The repeated mechanism is simple : “pin the black pawn, check the black king”. The queen climbs the staircase c2 – c3 – d3 – d4 – e4 – e5 – f5 – f6 – g6 – g7 – h7 – h8 and, at the moment the black king is on b1, the queen slides down the column h8 – h1 and gives mate. (The presence of the three white pawn is thus explained, for it forces the queen to go at the top of the staircase).

 (Problem 13) Moutecidis Pavlos Fourth place, 2nd World Chess Compositions Contest, 1972 White plays and mates in 7 moves #7 (10+11) [ B5bB/8/2p5/Q2pS3/KS3q2/3Rp3/PP2pbps/4ks1R]

In this interesting composition, by the Greek composer Moutecidis, the single threat from Bh8 is not enough. Let us see the solution:

First Phase : Try {1.Sg4? (holds the flight f2 of the black king, threats [2.Bc3#])
1...gxh1=Q! (unpins Sf1, so it can defend by moving to d2)}

Last phase : Key 1.Κa3! (The white king unpins Sb4 and the threat is 2.Sc2++)
1...Qf8 (The black queen pins again Sb4. The mechanism unpin-pin is repeated...)
2.Kb3 Qb8
3.Bb7 Qxb7
4.Ka3 Qe7
5.Ka4 Qh4 (...but suddenly...)
6.Sg4 (...what had failed in the first phase as a try, now it is played with double threat...),
6...Qxg4 / Qxh8 (...and black is unable to parry both of them)
7.Bc3# / Sc2# .

The travel of the black queen, Qf4 – f8 – b8 – b7 – e7 – h4, forced the queen to cross over the critical square g4, and after the move 6 Sg4 the queen is not pinning Sb4 anymore. (Interesting!)

If the more-mover has a small number of moves, let us say 10, we must discover these moves. If the number of moves is greater, we must discover the mechanism that will be repeated, in order to reach mate.

The following problem, a composition of Otto - Titus Blathy, has been published many times because the stipulation is surprising, Mate in 127 moves, and also because is relatively easy to see how the mate is achieved.

 (Problem 83) Otto - Titus Blathy, “Magyar Sakkvilag”, 1930 White plays and mates in 127 moves #127 (2+14) [ 8/7p/7p/p4s1p/b3Q2p/K2p3p/p1r5/rk5s]

Key 1.Qe1+ (Who cares if this is a checking key? We must find 126 more moves!) Rc1
2.Qd2 Rc2 (We omit writing the forced moves of black: Rc1 Rc2)
3.Qd1+ 4.Qxd3+ 5.Qd1+ 6.Qd2 7.Qe1+ 8.Qe4+ 9.Qxh1+ 10.Qe4+ 11.Qe1+ 12.Qd2 13.Qd1+ 14.Qd3+ 15.Qf1+ 16.Qxf5+ 17.Qe4 (White has cleared the area, only the pawns remain in column-h, which will slowly come down...)

17...h2 18.Qe1+ 19.Qd2 20.Qd1+ 21.Qd3+ 22.Qf1+ 23.Qf5+ 24.Qe4

24...h1=Q 25.Qxh1+ 26.Qe4+ 27.Qe1+ 28.Qd2 29.Qd1+ 30.Qd3+ 31.Qf1+ 32.Qf5+ 33.Qe4 h3 (By repetition of the same mechanism we will reach the following ending)

120...h1=Q 121.Qxh1+ Rc1 122.Qh7+ Rc2 123.Qe4 Bb3 124.Qe1+ Rc1 125.Qd2 Rc2 126.Qd1+ Rc1 127.Qxb3#
(Mr. Blathy has composed problems with more moves than this!)

[This post in Greek language].

### Three-movers

We call three-movers the problems which have three-move-solution.

In orthodox three-movers the series of moves is W – B – W – B – W (white plays the key – black plays defense – white continues attack – black continues defense – white gives mate). Another way to denote moves : W1 first white move, B1 first black move, W2 second white move, B2 second black move, etc..

In heterodox helpmate three-movers the series of moves is B – W – B – W – B – W (in helpmates black plays first).

In heterodox selfmate three-movers the series of moves is W – B – W – B – W – B.

If it is not accompanied by any characteristic, the expression three-mover means orthodox three-mover.

The problem of the engineer Lyris Basil seems to be quite simple, since the black king is already pushed in the corner h8 and with a checking the mate is done. For example, if the bishop leaves g6, the knight with move Sg6 gives check and maybe mate.
 (Problem 12) Lyris D. Basil, "To Skaki", December 1943 White plays and mates in 3 moves #3 (5+2) [7k/7P/6BK/8/7S/8/6R1/6r1]

This solution teaches us that, looking for it, we must use all the area of the chessboard.
Try {1.Bh5? [2.Sg6#] Rxg2!}
Try {1.Rf2? Rf1! (We have tried to move to the left Rg2 to square f2 in order to threaten with 2.Rf8 mate in the eighth row, and the black has replied 1...Rf1 stopping this threat. If now we move the bishop to threat mate with the knight, let us say 2.Be4, the black replies with switchback of the rook, 2...Rg1!, and mate cannot be done in the third move. The other tries have similar continuation)}.
Try {1.Re2? Re1!}
Try {1.Rd2? Rd1!}
Try {1.Rc2? Rc1!}
Try {1.Rb2? Rb1!}

Key 1.Ra2! Ra1 (and here the question arises : in what aspect does this move differ from the five previous moves?)
2.Βb1 (It traps the black rook)
2...Rx~ (The symbol x means captures a piece. The symbol ~ means any piece, any square. The trapped R in the corner a1 may capture any piece it chooses, Ra2 or Bb1, but it cannot stop mate at the opposite corner of the board)
3.Sg6#

The three-movers can have complex themes, (Roman, Plachutta, etc), which will be presented in next posts.

[This post in Greek language].

## Saturday, March 29, 2008

### Two-movers (2)

If it is not accompanied by any characteristic, the expression two-mover means orthodox two-mover.

 (Problem 11) Moutecidis Pavlos, Chess magazine "O Skakistis", No.6, May 1968 (Set play), White plays and mates in 2 moves * #2 (4+5) [8/3b2p1/6Qb/8/2pK1k1S/8/5S2/8]

The engineer Moutecidis Pavlos is a composer specialized in many-mover (langzüger) selfmates. He has composed thousands of problems and holds the title of International Master. Here we see an orthodox two-mover of his, which contains Bikos theme. (This theme was proposed by the Greek composer Bikos Spyros).

 Theme Bikos : In one phase, in one variation a self-block is exploited and in another variation the moving piece is captured. In another phase, the same two defenses have reciprocal continuation.

Here follows the solution of the problem:
First Phase : (*)
1...Bg5 2.Qd6# (self-block at g5)
1...Bg4 2.Qxg4# (capture at g4)

Intermediate Phase : Try 1.Sh1? [2.Qg3#] Bg4!

Last Phase : Key 1 Se4! [2.Qg3#]
1...Bg5 2.Qxg5# (capture at g5)
1...Bg4 2.Qd6# (self-block at g4)

We present here some terms about the appearance of a problem:

Miniature : A problem with 1-7 pieces in its initial position.
Meredith : A problem with 8-12 pieces in its initial position.

Light : Problem with relatively little material compared with the richness of the play. This is a desirable situation from the aspect of economy.
Heavy : Problem with relatively many pieces compared with presented play. This is a situation to be avoided, in order to have positions with economy.
Grotesque : A problem having very un-natural position, especially the one having many pieces or big difference of power between the opponents.

Aristocratic : Problem without pawns in its initial position.

We understand that the composer has created problem-11 as a [two-mover Meredith with theme Bikos].

17/02/2008 : The International Master Fougiaxis Harry informs us that, using the same mechanism, the composer Moutecidis had presented the theme Bikos in miniature form a few years earlier:

 (Problem 126) Moutecidis Pavlos, (dedicated to Bikos Spyros) 61, "To Mat", 11 November 1952 White plays and mate in 2 moves. (There is set play) * #2 (4+3) [3S2s1/7Q/5k2/5P2/5K2/8/b7/8]

The solution of problem-126 is as follows:

(Set play) First Phase : (*)
1...Se7 2.Qh8#
1...Bf7 2.Qxf7#

(Trial play) Note that there are seven tries:
{1.Se6? Bxe6!}, {1.Qg6+? Ke7!}, {1.Qh4+? Kg7!}, {1.Qc7? Be6!}, {1.Qf7+? Bxf7!}, {1.Qg7+? Kxg7!}, {1.Qh8+? Ke7!}.

(Actual play) Last Phase : Key 1.Sc6! [2.Qg6#]
1...Se7 2.Qxe7#
1...Bf7 2.Qh8#

[This post in Greek language].

### Composers of chess problems

English language posts / ΑγγλικάΕλληνικές αναρτήσεις / Greek language
Last update : 2011-02-172011-02-17 : Τελευταία ενημέρωση
Composers of chess problemsΣυνθέτες σκακιστικών προβλημάτων
The Greek composers have the characteristic (GRC) in front of their names.Οι Έλληνες συνθέτες έχουν το χαρακτηριστικό (GRC) μπροστά από το επώνυμό τους
Unknown composer : 025 030 054(*) 129 130 131 394Άγνωστος συνθέτης : 025 030 054(*) 129 130 131 394

### A

Abbot, J. W. : 020Abbot, J. W. : 020
Afek, Yohanan : 340Afek, Yohanan : 340
***Ahues, H. : 288 311 324
Ancsin, Endre : 133Ancsin, Endre : 133
Anderson, William : 166Anderson, William : 166
Angelini, Eric : 111Angelini, Eric : 111
Antonov, Yuri : 212Antonov, Yuri : 212
(GRC) Anyfantis C. GeorgeΑνυφαντής Κ. Γιώργος : ιστολόγιό του
Archakov, W. M. : 413***
***Arefjev, J. : 293
(GRC) Argirakopoulos Themis : 220 221Αργυρακόπουλος Θέμης : 220 221
Argunow, Nikolai : 093Argunow, Nikolai : 093
Arnold R. : 304Arnold R. : 286
Atanackovic, B : 408***
Azhusin, Aleksandr : 199Azhusin, Aleksandr : 199

### B

Bachl, F. : 274Bachl F. : 274
Backsi, G : 416***
Barett, Samuel R. : 001Barett, Samuel R. : 001
Bartolovic, H. : 275 324Bartolovic, H. : 275 324
Bazlov, Y. : 257 379 380Bazlov, Yuri : 257 379
Begheijn, Theodor : 183Begheijn, Theodor : 183
***Beine, A. : 292
Begley, Kevin : 205Begley, Kevin : 205
Belokon, Yuri : 342Belokon, Yuri : 342
Benko, Pal : 156Benko, Pal : 156
Bent C. : 399Bent C. : 399
Bergqwist, D. : 254Bergqwist, D. : 254
Bernard, Henry D'Oyly : 044Bernard, Henry D'Oyly : 044
Bettmann : 050(*) 051(*)Bettmann : 050 051(*) 307
(GRC) Bikos Spyros : 317 biographyΜπίκος Σπύρος : 317 βιογραφικά
Blathy, Otto - Titus : 083 115Blathy, Otto - Titus : 083 115
Bluhm G. : 296Bluhm, G. : 296
***Bosch, M : 359
Brehmer, Siegfried : 077Brehmer, Siegfried : 077
Brock, D T : 441Brock, D. T. : 441
Bron W. A. : 297Bron, W. A. : 297
Brunner, Erich : 175Brunner, Erich : 175
Bull, C. : 080Bull, C. : 080
Bunka, V : 425***
Bwee, Touw Hian : 169Bwee, Touw Hian : 169

### C

Caillaud, Michel : 241 341 352 389Caillaud, Michel : 241 341 352 389
Carlson, O. J. : 285Carlson O. J. : 285
Carpenter, George E. : 165Carpenter, George E. : 165
Chandrasekaran, K. R. : 228Chandrasekaran, K. R. : 228
Chepizhni, Viktor Ivanovich : 068Chepizhni, Viktor Ivanovich : 068
Chlubna, Friedrich : 190Chlubna, Friedrich : 190
Clausen, S. : 258Clausen, S. : 258
Corrias, A. G. : 032Corrias, A. G. : 032
Crisan, Vlaicu : 267Crisan, Vlaicu : 267
Crusats, Joaquim : 223Crusats, Joaquim : 223

### D

Dawson, T. R. : 099 106 107 154 155 163Dawson, T. R. : 099 106 107 154 155 163
Degener, U : 417***
(GRC) De Grandi Carlo : 208 209 215ΝτεΓκράντι Κάρλο : 208 209 215
van Dijk, N. G. G. : 026 047van Dijk, N. G. G. : 026 047
Dittrich, Dr. Kurt : 022Dittrich, Dr. Kurt : 022
(GRC) Double-Islander : 429 430 431 432 433 434Δυο-νήσιος : 429 430 431 432 433 434
Draiska, I : 411***
Drese, G. H. : 048Drese, G. H. : 048
Dunsany, Lord : 349Dunsany, Lord : 349

### E

***Eberle S. : 313
(GRC) Economopoulos E. : 002Οικονομόπουλος Ε. : 002
Ehrenstein Maurus : 395Ehrenstein Maurus : 395
(GRC) Emmanouilidis Emmanuel : 318Εμμανουηλίδης Εμμανουήλ : 318

### F

***Falk, L. : 291
Feather, Chris : 096 180 336 347Feather, Chris : 096 180 336 347
Feigl, M. : 283Feigl M. : 283
Fomichev, Evgeny : 174Fomichev, Evgeny : 174
Forsberg, Henry : 097Forsberg, Henry : 097
(GRC) Fougiaxis Harry : 147 271 272 273 316Φουγιαξής Χάρης : 147 271 272 273 316
(GRC) Fragoulis K. : 151Φραγκούλης Κ. : 151
Friedgood, David : 182Friedgood, David : 182

### G

***Galitsky, Alexander : 364
Gallischek, Otto : 321Gallischek, Otto : 321
Gamnitzer, C. : 287 426Gamnitzer C. : 287
(GRC) Garoufalidis Ioannis : 222 251 252 406Γαρουφαλίδης Ιωάννης : 222 251 252 406
(GRC) Georgopoulos George : 387Γεωργόπουλος Γεώργιος : 387
(GRC) Giampanis Ioannis : 320Γιαμπάνης Ιωάννης : 320
Giegold, Fritz : 141Giegold, Fritz : 141
Gleave, Walter : 131Gleave, Walter : 131
Gorbatenko, J : 413***
Gorbunov, G. : 145Gorbunov, G. : 145
Gorgiev, Tigran : 424Gorgiev, Tigran : 404
(GRC) Goussopoulos D. : 350 351Γουσόπουλος Δημήτριος : βιογραφία 350 351
Grimshaw, Walter : 037Grimshaw, Walter : 037
Grin, A. P. : 065Grin, A. P. : 065
***Grosdemange, E. : 290
Gschwend, A. : 281Gschwend A. : 281

### H

Haefele, H. : 284Haefele H. : 284
Hagemann, Wilhelm : 094Hagemann, Wilhelm : 094
Hannelius, Jan : 066Hannelius, Jan : 066
Hartong, Jan : 062 067Hartong, Jan : 062 067
Healey, Frank : 017 140 143 393Healey, Frank : 017 140 143 393
Heathcote, Godfrey : 046Heathcote, Godfrey : 046 402
Herzberg, Michael : 171Herzberg, Michael : 171
Hofmann, Fritz : 007Hofmann, Fritz : 007
Hornecker S. : 303***
Huber, Eric : 267Huber, Eric : 267

### I

(GRC) Iatridis Stavros : 008 022 063 119 164Ιατρίδης Σταύρος : 008 022 063 119 164
Ivanov, E. : 348Ivanov, E. : 348

### J

Janet, Frank : 033Janet, Frank : 033
Joergensen, W. : 092Joergensen, W. : 092
Johandl, A : 443Johandl, A : 443
Jones, Christofer J. A. : 174 419Jones, Christofer J. A. : 174
Jonsson, Christer : 188Jonsson, Christer : 188
***Jurisec, S : 361

### K

(GRC) Kalkavouras John : 242 243 244Καλκαβούρας Ιωάννης : 242 243 244 386
(GRC) Kapralos N. Dimitris : 010 234 353 354 355 356 357Καπράλος Ν. Δημήτρης : 010 234 353 354 355 356 357
Karpov, Valery : 184 193Karpov, Valery : 184 193
Karwatkar, Abdul Jabbar : 261Karwatkar, Abdul Jabbar : 261
Kasparyan, Genrikh Moiseyevich : 089 116 117 139 187Kasparyan, Genrikh Moiseyevich : 089 116 117 139 187
Keller, M. : 225 282Keller, M. : 225 282
Kerhuel, M. : 016Kerhuel, M. : 016
Kichigin, V : 425***
Kidson, H. E. : 136Kidson, H. E. : 136
Kipping, C. S. : 071</***n-2-and-in-3-phases.html">038Kipping, C. S. : 071
***Kiss, Janos : 038
Klett, Ph. : 023Klett, Ph. : 023
***Koblov, Rostislav (?) : 363
Kockelkorn, Carl : 135Kockelkorn, Carl : 135
Kohtz, Johannes : 135Kohtz, Johannes : 135
(GRC) Konidaris Panagiotis : 270 436 437 438 439 440Κονιδάρης Παναγιώτης : 270 436 437 438 439 440
Kopaev, V : 415***
Korolikov, V. A. : 086Korolikov, V. A. : 086
Kossolapov, N. : 100Kossolapov, N. : 100
Kotesovec, Vaclav : 330Kotesovec, Vaclav : 330
Kotrc, Jan : 196Kotrc, Jan : 196
Kovacevic, Marjan : 224Kovacevic, Marjan : 224
Kralin, Nikolay : 172Kralin, Nikolay : 172
***Kramer, A : 358
Krikheli, Iosif : 146Krikheli, Iosif : 146
Kroetschmer, Ralf : 333Kroetschmer, Ralf : 333
Kubbel, Karl Artur Leonid : 085 334Kubbel, Karl Artur Leonid : 085 334 405
Kuznetzov, Mikhail : 176Kuznetzov, Mikhail : 176
Kuzovkov, Alexandr : 213Kuzovkov, Alexandr : 213

### L

Langstaff, W. : 113Langstaff, W. : 113
Larsen, Lars : 200Larsen, Lars : 200
Lepuschuetz, H. : 102Lepuschuetz, H. : 102
(GRC) Liakos DimitrisΛιάκος Δημήτρης εδώ και εδώ
(GRC) Liberalis JosephΛιμπεράλης Ιωσήφ
Libiurkin, M. S. : 087 427Libiurkin, M. S. : 087 427
Lipton, M. : 029 040 101 214 412Lipton, M. : 029 040 101 214
Littlewood, N. : 042Littlewood, N. : 042
Loshinsky, Lev Ilych : 035 036 074 105Loshinsky, Lev Ilych : 035 036 074 105
Loveday, Rev. Henry Augustin : 127Loveday, Rev. Henry Augustin : 127
Loyd, Sam : 003 004 005 006 019 031 061 079 110 114 144 161Loyd, Sam : 003 004 005 006 019 031 061 079 110 114 144 161 400
Lukashov, Viktor : 197Lukashov, Viktor : 197
(GRC) Lyris D. Basil (Vassilios) : 012 319 375 376 377 378 391Λύρης Δ. Βασίλειος : 012 319 375 376 377 378 391

### M

(GRC) Mabillis Lorenzo : 121 137 138Μαβίλης Λορέντζος : 121 137 138
Macleod, Norman A. : 182 201Macleod, Norman A. : 182 201
Makanzie A. : 294Makanzie, A. : 294
Makaronec, L : 446Makaronec, L : 446
(GRC) Manolas Emmanuel : 009 045 069 108 160 230 231 232 233 262 263 264 265 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 428Μανωλάς Εμμανουήλ : 009 045 069 108 160 230 231 232 233 262 263 264 265 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 428
Manolescu, Mircea : 039Manolescu, Mircea : 039
Mansfield, B. G. : 073Mansfield, B. G. : 073
Mansfield, Comins : 049(*) 052(*) 396Mansfield, Comins : 049(*) 052(*) 396
Marandyuk, M. : 170Marandyuk, M. : 170
(GRC) Marassoglou N. : 148Μαράσογλου Ν. : 148
Marble, Murray : 018 050(*)Marble, Murray : 018 050(*)
(GRC) Maroulis George : 233Μαρούλης Γιώργος : 233
Martindale Frank W. : 397Martindale Frank W. : 397
Marwitz, J H : 418***
Maslar, Z. : 095Maslar, Z. : 095 Karl Heinrich : 398
Massmann Wilhelm Karl Heinrich : 398***
Matous, Mario : 366Matous, Mario : 366
Matthaeus, H. G. : 279Matthaeus H. G. : 279
Matthews, R. C. O. : 072 128Matthews, R. C. O. : 072 128
Mattison, H. : 103Mattison, H. : 103
Meinking, Dan : 204Meinking, Dan : 204
Melnichenko, V. : 170Melnichenko, V. : 170
Mertes, H. (?) : 058(*)Mertes, H. (?) : 058(*)
Meyer, H. F. L. : 345Meyer H. F. L. : 345
Millour, Rene Jean : 016Millour, Rene Jean : 016
Minski M. : 303***
Monreal, Pierre : 337Monreal, Pierre : 337
Morra, Juan C. : 185 421Morra, Juan C. : 185
Morse, C. : 053(*)Morse, C. : 053(*)
Mosely, Arthur J. : 195Mosely, Arthur J. : 195
(GRC) Moutecidis Pavlos : 011 013 126 153 168 410Μουτεσίδης Παύλος : 011 013 126 153 168

### N

Navon, Em. : 142Navon, Em. : 142
Narayanan, Chithathur Gopalan Sathya : 186Narayanan, Chithathur Gopalan Sathya : 186
Niemeijer, M. : 056(*)Niemeijer, M. : 056(*)
***Nikitin, V : 360
Nikoletic, Vukota : 179 299Nikoletic, Vukota : 179 299
Nowotny, A. : 125Nowotny, A. : 125

### P

Pachl, Franz : 181Pachl, Franz : 181
Pachman, V. : 134 302Pachman, V. : 134
(GRC) Paizis K. : 152Παΐζης Κ. : 152
Palkoska, Dr. E. : 422***
(GRC) Pantavos Emmanuel : 167 235 239 314 315 460Πανταβός Εμμανουήλ : 167 235 239 460
(GRC) Papaconstantinou Efthimios : 387Παπακωνσταντίνου Ευθύμιος : 387
Pauly, Wolfgang : 090 278 280Pauly, Wolfgang : 090 278 280
(GRC) Pergialis Nikos : 162 229 235 236 237 238 239 240 245 246 247 248 249 250Περγιάλης Νίκος : 162 229 235 236 237 238 239 240 245 246 247 248 249 250 314 315 392
Petkov, A. Petko: 298 335Petkov, A. Petko: 298 335
Petrov, Dmitry : 178Petrov, Dmitry : 178
Piltschenko, W. : 329Piltschenko, W. : 329
Plaksin, Nikita : 322Plaksin, Nikita : 322
Platov, ? : 444Platov, ? : 444
Plesnivy, A. E. : 075 344Plesnivy, A. E. : 075 344
Polak, P : 423
***
Polk, Harry G. : 206Polk, Harry G. : 206
Popkov, Nikolay : 194Popkov, Nikolay : 194
Pospisil J. : 295Pospisil, J. : 295
(GRC) Prentos Kostas : 159 203 204 205 266 267 268 269 270Πρέντος Κώστας : 159 203 204 205 266 267 268 269 270
Prokes, L : 409***
Pronkin, Dmitry : 112Pronkin, Dmitry : 112

### R

Raican, Paul : 267Raican, Paul : 267
Reeves, A. C. : 041 043Reeves, A. C. : 041 043
Rehm, Hans – Peter : 070 076Rehm, Hans – Peter : 070 076
Ren, A. : 057(*)Ren, A. : 057(*)
Reti, Richard : 088 210Reti, Richard : 088 210
Rice, John : 202Rice, John : 202
Richter, Frank : 173 276Richter, Frank : 173 276
Rinck, Henri : 118Rinck, Henri : 118
Rudenko, V. : 091Rudenko, V. : 091
Rusinek, Jan : 192Rusinek, Jan : 192
Ryabinin, Nikolay : 198 256Ryabinin, Nikolay : 198 256

### S

Saavedra, Rev. : 081Saavedra, Rev. : 081
***Sackmann F. : 308
Savournin, Jacques : 189Savournin, Jacques : 189
Schiffmann, J. A. : 060(*)Schiffmann, J. A. : 060(*)
***Schroder, Wilhelm : 401
***Schumoff M. de Saint-Petersburg : 381
Seider, S. : 227Seider, S. : 227
Seletsky, A. S. : 084Seletsky, A. S. : 084
Shichev V. : 301Shichev, V. : 289
Shinkman, W. A. : 277 305Shinkman W. : 277 306
***Shumarin, V : 362
(GRC) Siaperas Triantafyllos : 021 120 150Σιαπέρας Τριαντάφυλλος : 021 120 150
(GRC) Siotis Nikos : 010 390 391Σιώτης Νίκος : 010 390 391
(GRC) Sklavounos Panagis : 372 373 374Σκλαβούνος Παναγής : 382 383 384
(GRC) Skoularikis Fotios : 233Σκουλαρίκης Φώτιος : 233
Skripnik, Anatoly : 174Skripnik, Anatoly : 174
Skuja, Roman : 27Skuja, Roman : 27
Slepian, Gregori : 435Slepian Gregori : 435
Smyslov, Vassili : 253 260Smyslov, V. : 253 260
Sokolenko, Leonid : 172Sokolenko, Leonid : 172
***Sommer, Bruno : 403
Stavrietsky : 256Stavrietsky : 256
Stavrinides, A. : 325 326Stavrinides, A. : 325 326
Stelman, Aleksei : 342Stelman, Aleksei : 342
Stocci, Ottavio : 407***
Storozhenko, I. : 332 343Storozhenko, Ivan : 332 343
Stosic, M. : 327Stosic, M. : 327
Surkov, V : 446Surkov, V : 446
Sutherland, R. : 024Sutherland, R. : 024
Svanberg, A. F. : 219Svanberg, A. F. : 219
Swindley, C. P. : 109Swindley, C. P. : 109

### T

Taraba, Jozef : 328Taraba, Jozef : 328
Taverner, T. : 034Taverner, T. : 034
Tkachenko, Sergei : 346Tkachenko, Sergei : 346
Troitzky, A. A. : 082Troitzky, A. A. : 082
Tura, W. : 055(*) 420Tura, W. : 055(*)

### U

Umnov, E. : 074Umnov, E. : 074

### V

Vandemeulebrouke, Ignaas : 216Vandemeulebrouke, Ignaas : 216
Vilkauskas, A : 445Vilkauskas, A : 445
Vukcevich, Milan : 098 157 259Vukcevich, Milan : 098 157 259

### W

Wainwright, J. C. J. : 388Wainwright, J. C. J. : 388
Weissauer, Dr. Hermann : 217 218Weissauer, Dr. Hermann : 217 218
Werle, Allan : 059(*)Werle, Allan : 059(*)
***White A. C. : 310
Wielgos Oskar : 300 331Wielgos, Oskar : 331
Wirtanen, E. A. : 104Wirtanen, E. A. : 104
Wurzburg Otto : 442Wurzburg Otto : 312 442

### Y

Yarosh, L. V. : 122 123Yarosh, L. V. : 122 123

### Z

Zachodjakin, G. : 255Zachodjakin, G. : 255
(GRC) Zappas Byron : 014 124 149 207 226 390Ζάππας Βύρων : 014 124 149 207 226 390
Zepler, Erich – Ernest : 078 132Zepler, Erich – Ernest : 078 132
***Zickermann, A : 365
Zlatanov, Angel : 177Zlatanov, Angel : 177