Saturday, May 17, 2008

Genrikh Kasparyan

Genrikh Moiseyevich Kasparyan (German: Genrich Moissejewitsch Kasparjan, Russian: Генрих Моисеевич Каспарян) is considered one of the greatest Soviet composers of chess studies.
G. Kasparyan was born 27/02/1910 in Tbilisi (Georgia USSR), and died 27/12/1995 in Erivan (Armenia USSR). He was more than 13 years old when he was taught chess, in 1924, by his older brother. He became student (1926 - 1931) of civil engineering in the Polytechnic Institute of Tbilisi. During that period he started composing and he created about 40 chess studies.
He was also very strong over the board player. In 1931 he became champion of Tbilisi and then champion of USSR, taking the first place in a match with Michail Moiseyevich Botwinnik, who became later world champion. In 1936 he went to Erivan and became the first Armenian chess player ”Meister des Sports” winning 9,5-7,5 Witali Alexandrowitsch Tschechower.
He served as soldier (July 1941 - November 1945) and was repeatedly decorated.
In 1956 he has been awarded the title ”Honourable Master of Sports”. He worked as chess tutor till 1990. As active OTB player he won ten times in the Armenian championship.
In 1928 he published his first end-game study. He has composed over 500 studies, from which about 300 have won prizes in various contests.
He took part in 13 composing championships in USSR and he won in six.
In 1950 the International Chess Federation (F.I.D.E.) gave him the title ”International Master”.
In 1956 he became ”International Judge” for chess compositions.
In 1972 he became ”International Grand Master” for chess compositions. For this high title Kasparyan needed 70 points (publications in FIDE Albums). During his career he has gathered 174,17 points.
His book ”ЩАХМАТНЫЕ ЭТЮДЫ, Доминация” (1974) is famous, (and it was translated in English as ”Domination in 2,545 Endgame Studies” in 1980).

Two studies by Kasparyan

(Problem 116)
Genrikh Kasparyan,
First Prize, ”Roycroft Jubilee Ty”, 1979
White plays and draws
= (5+10)

This study, is not only noteworthy because it was awarded First Prize in a famous tourney, but because Kasparyan was working on it for 30 years. By his statement, this study is based on an idea he had in 1945. Let us see the solution :

Key: 1.Qb5!
White loses in the variation (1.Kxc2 Bf5 2.Bf6 e3+ 3.Kb3 exd2 4.Bxe5+ Kb1), also in the variation (1.Kxc2 Bf5 2.Qb5 e3+ 3.Kb3 exd2 4.Qxe5+ Kb1).

1...Sd3+ 2.Qxd3
White loses again with (2.Kxc2 Bd1+ 3.Kxd1 Rg1+ 4.Ke2 Rxh4 5.Ke3 Re1+ 6.Kd4 Sb2 7.e8=Q e3+), or with (2.Kxc2 Bd1+ 3.Kxd1 Rg1+ 4.Kc2 Rc1+ 5.Kb3 Rb1+).

2...exd3 3.e8=Q Be6
The continuation (3...Rg5 4.Qh8+ f6 5.Bf2 Rb5 6.Qxf6+ Rb2 7.Bd4 Rxf6 8.Bxf6) is not good because the position is at equilibrium despite the fact that black has more material.

4.Qxe6 Rg5
The threat is [5...Rb5]. If now 5.Bxg5, then after 5...Rf1+ black can checkmate.

Not (5.Qe3 Rf1+ 6.Be1 Rb5 7.Qxd3 Rxe1+ 8.Kxc2 Rb2+ 9 Kc3 Rc1+ 10 Kd4 Rb4+ 11 Ke5 Kb2). There are now two continuations...

5...Rg1+ 6.Be1 Rb4 7.Qxa2+ Kxa2
The black Rook has pinned the Bishop and white is stalemated, or...

5...Rb5 6.Bd4+ Rb2 7.Qf6 Rxf6 8.Bxf6
The white Bishop has pinned the Rook and black is stalemated.

(Problem 117)
Genrikh Kasparyan,
First Prize, ”Chess in USSR”, 1935
White plays and draws
= (7+7)

The situation, which will be presented in the solution of problem-117, can be described as Continuous Stalemate, where white and black try in vain to sacrifice their Queens. Let us see the solution :

Key: 1.Sf4! [2.Qd3# / Sd5#]
2.Sg2+ Ke4
3.Qxa4 (White sees that if 3... bxa4, will be stalemated).
3...Qh2+ (Black sees that after 4.Kxh2 bxa4, will win).
4.Kf2! Qg1+ (Black tries repeatedly to sacrifice his Queen, but White continuously becomes pinned...)
5.Kg3! Qf2+
6.Kh2! Qg3+
7.Kg1! Qh2+ (Draw, by repetition of the moves).

(This post in Greek language).

No comments: